Optical fiber is a waveguide for light. The primary application for such fiber is telecommunications – and their capacity is tremendous.
Optical fiber (OEMfiber.com)is two parts/sections of glass; the core and the cladding, and it’s the boundary between the two that guides light along the axis of the fiber. Coatings are applied to the fiber to protect it as just little scratches will create a place for the fiber to crack or split/break. Other than that, and obviously bending fiber to too-tight a radius and breaking it, fiber is surprisingly strong.
Fiber starts its life as a cylindrical tube, but the moment that tube is melted & drawn into fiber, it’s solid, too, so don’t get confused by that please.
Two types, essentially, of fiber is used in telecom: Multi-mode & single-mode. A “mode” is the path a ray of light can take within the fiber. Multi-mode fiber has a large core diameter (50 or 65 microns) and so allows simpler/easier coupling of light into the fiber. This ease simplifies components (connectors, light sources) and helps keep costs down for relatively short spans of fiber (modal dispersion limits transmission rates/distances). Single-mode fiber has a very small core (9 microns) that complicates the precision needed for light sources & connectors but also allows tremendous speeds & distances by minimizing/eliminating the effects that cause the trouble in multi-mode fiber. Now the higher cost for single-mode fiber, connectors and sources (lasers) goes way up, but this more than offsets the reduction in costs of duplicated equipment that would be necessary to go similar distances with multi-mode transmission. Single-mode fiber wins easily the distance & rate contest.
Plus, single-mode systems can carry more than one wavelength in each fiber. CWDM or DWDM (Coarse- or Dense-Wavelength Division Multiplexing) can combine, currently, about 100 channels into a single fiber (that’s DWDM there). (Multi-mode fiber can carry more than one wave, too, but why bother? The spans are so short that it’s a lot cheaper & easier to just have more fiber.) The real trick, besides the finely tuned lasers, is taking the wavelengths apart at the far end.
(There are transmitter/receiver pairs that do, in fact, have multiple wavelengths useful in MM or SM fiber, but they’re dedicated to each other to make up some forms of 100GB transmission paths. The CWDM & DWDM systems mentioned above allow individual wavelengths to be added or dropped from the overall path.)
Recently, CRU (UK Commodity Research Institute) released the global fiber optic cable industry overview in 2018 and proposed a prospect in 2019. The fiber optic cable industry in 2018 is mixed. The good news is that the number of fixed- line broadband subscribers in the world exceeds 1 billion. However, after the global fiber-optic cable market has achieved double-digit growth for four years, demand in 2018 has only increased by 4% year-on-year. This is the lowest growth rate since 2003. CRU believes that the main reason for the slowdown in growth is due to the downturn in the Chinese market.
As mentioned above, the slowdown in the global fiber optic cable market is due to the downturn in the Chinese market, and when it comes to the downturn in the Chinese market, CRU believes that China Mobile’s acquisition volume in the first half of 2018 is lower than the planned purchase volume at the time of bidding. It is reported that in the first half of 2018, China Mobile announced a 110 million-kilometer cable collection project. At that time, it was widely expected that China Mobile’s annual collection will reach 200 million core kilometers, but China Mobile did not conduct mining in the second half of the year.
According to CRU, in fact, China Mobile’s fiber optic cable usage in 2018 is much lower than that of the collection. It is not clear whether the mobile has completed the purchase of 110 million core kilometers. At the end of 2018, some suppliers indicated that they had completed the project in the fourth quarter of last year, but one supplier said that China Mobile is still placing orders under this contract. In addition, China Mobile has not announced its 2019 tender, and CRU expects many provincial operators to fully absorb the accumulated inventory at the end of 2017 and the year of 2018.
In the global market, French telecom operator Orange and other operators involved in FTTH (Fiber to the Home) business said that they completed the construction of FTTH one year ahead of schedule, and the demand for fiber optic cable in France increased by 33% in 2018, making France a Second only to China, the United States and India’s fourth largest market in the world. In the Indian market, cable demand increased by 19% thanks to the BharatNet broadband plan. CRU said that although major markets such as Western Europe, North America and India have maintained strong growth under the stimulus of large-scale FTTx deployment plans, they are still not enough to offset the decline in the Chinese market.
The MTP/MPO distribution box dominates the high-density cabling environment. It is a high-density pre-terminated fiber optic device with flexible deployment that not only provides conversion between MTP/MPO connectors and LC or SC connectors. To help high-density networks achieve rapid deployment, and to reduce the installation time and cost of optical networks.
The MTP/MPO distribution box has these advantages:
1. Simple installation / saving installation time: MTP / MPO distribution box is a pre-terminated product, and uses a push-pull mechanism to facilitate the insertion and removal of cables, and can also eliminate unpredictable terminal failures. It is estimated that the installation time of MPO/MTP distribution boxes can be reduced by 75% compared to conventional fiber-optic cabling systems.
2. Easy to maintain and manage: MTP/MPO distribution box can adapt to changing wiring environment. When the connector changes, just replace the cable, and the other basic equipment of the network does not change, so MTP/MPO is equipped with Wire boxes are easier to maintain and manage, and the security risks are lower.
3. High Density: Since the MTP/MPO connector can accommodate 12/24-core fiber, it can provide 12/24 times density, which can increase wiring density while saving wiring space.
4. Cost Saving: As mentioned above, the MTP/MPO distribution box is easy to install and requires no additional installers to install it professionally, thus greatly reducing installation costs.
5. Scalability: The MTP/MPO distribution box is modular in design and can be quickly connected to devices with various speeds such as 10G/40G/100G, which is also easy to reconfigure when running and expanding the network. It is very important to say.
What is a single mode fiber?
Single mode fiber: The center glass core is very thin (the core diameter is generally 9 or 10 μm) and can only transmit one mode of fiber. Therefore, its inter-mode dispersion is small and suitable for remote communication.
Multimode fiber patch cords are multimode fiber optic cables with connectors at both ends for connection from the device to the fiber optic cabling link. They have a thicker protective layer and are typically used between the optical transceiver and the terminal box. connection. Multimode fiber allows different modes of light to be transmitted over a single fiber. Because of the large core diameter of the multimode fiber, relatively inexpensive couplers and connectors can be used. The core diameter of the multimode fiber is 50 μm to 100 μm.
What is the difference between single mode fiber and multimode fiber?
1: light source
Single-mode fiber uses a solid-state laser as a light source; multi-mode fiber uses a light-emitting diode as a light source;
Single mode fiber has a long transmission bandwidth and a long transmission distance, but because of its need for a laser source, the cost is high; multimode fiber has a low transmission speed and a short distance, but its cost is relatively low;
Multimode fibers are typically 50 or 62.5 μm core diameter, while typical single mode fibers are 8 and 10 μm core diameters, both of which have a cladding diameter of 125 μm.
Single-mode fiber core diameter and dispersion are small, allowing only one mode of transmission; multimode fiber core diameter and dispersion are large, allowing hundreds of modes of transmission.